I had success getting Ulfric to talk with me by choosing the gamesave just before entering the Palace of the Kings and getting to them before they get into the middle of the discussion about the Jagged crown with Season Unending Joining the Stormcloaks, The Fallen all switched on. Galmar still will not respond, but I found something to bypass The Jagged Crown Quest since it is faulty so I list it below, courtesy of another user on a different site.>>>
This fix may be a bit tricky for some depending on who you know but if you have a friend with a PC version of skyrim you can fix this glitch and continue playing your game.
In my particular save I was on the Jagged Crown quest when I received Season Unending and encountered the error where I could not properly converse with Ulfric to progress the main quest line. This is what I did to successfully get past it:
1) Plug in a USB stick during gameplay on your 360 and make a save on it.
2) Open that save with Modio, this is free software that you can use to modify your 360 saves.
3) Click File Contents, right click savegame.dat and extract.
4) After extracting, rename it to savegame.ess
At this point you need access to a PC version of Skyrim.
5) Move the savegame.ess file into the Skyrim gamesave folder on the PC and then load it up
6) After it loads, hit the tilde key "~", this will bring up the console command UI.
7) At this point type in "setstage CW02B 200"
8) In my particular case, this advanced the Jagged Crown quest, and I was able to then talk to Ulfic and continue the main quest.
9) Save game, exit, then rename save back to savegame.dat
10) Go back to modio, open your save on USB>File Contents>Right click savegame.dat>Replace>Select the new save.
11) Click "Rehash/Resign"
12) Click Save to Device
When you load your save back into the 360 you should be all set.
Now for a few notes, with the setstage console command, CW02B is the code for the Jagged Crown quest and 200 was the particular number to complete it. If your glitch occurred on a different quest you're not out of luck, just search for the particular quest on uesp.net and you can find the quest ID and the stage you have to set it to for completion. Good luck to everyone that encountered this error and I hope this helps some :-)
I then had the bright idea to go ahead and try to roll back to an earlier save state to see if I could reproduce the success and found some data had been overwritten because I had not done a proper save. The only viable spot placed me back in Whiterun before the first convo on the matter of speaking with the Jarl. Dingleberries & Peatch Pits! Soooo anyway... Decided to do everything over again and the path chosen, half worked.. Have Joining The Stormcloaks, & Season Unending & The Fallen all active then go talk with the Jarl of Whiterun in Dragonsreach.. Finish that convo and then go kill the ice wraith.. Go from there to High Hrothgar and speak with Arngeir.. Exhaust any unusued questions except the one about being ready to host the meeting.. Leave and go see Ulfric first.. Get to them before they really talk about the Jagged Crown and get him to speak.. this may take several clicks, but hammer as needed... Exhaust and then see if the next quest arrives in the mail.. if not.. then Galmar may, or may not... be accessible.. I managed to get him to acknowledge me concerning passing the ice wraith gambit.. exhause as many questyions as possible without taking the oath.. The Jagged Crown quest never appeared for me on this path. Save the game, not just autosave, but actual save... Go to Solitude to speak with Tullius. Avoid saying anything about Ulfric.. take the neutral, informatively cautious path... then when he finally agrees to come exit the castle and " Save Game ". Return to Hrothgar and continue the meeting.. most of the bugg passed Join of Stormcloaks is also reopened. If you have no fortune favorable, then you have the choice of trying again later or seeing about bypassing the quest with the above solution, or just wait till Bethesda Gets off their collective butts about this upcomming patch for which we all have so dearly waited...
Skyrim has served to bring me out of the dark ages of videogaming at long last... so intuitive, so adaptable and tractable and moddable and so on.. I'm seriously..... impressed.. Please remember people.. It all began with pong.. in 1970.. The very year of my birth... and such a short time ago.. It's a miracle that this facility is a good as it is, considering it's terrific complexity, and complete originallity, evene if it is, part of a series of games.. It's all big-time hard work... Nothing is perfect, or ever should be, for such... is an offence great... to the Source and all of the Divine.... Rest assured.. I hunger with the rest of you for this next update and the DLC I have heard arriving on the wind, so here I sit.. Broken quested..Arrived to kick butt, but got only tested,.. by a loony gremlin caught in the works, the very same type that keep you from perks..... So There you go folks... May the show... roll on..